Debugging functions such as
var_export should not be kept in production code. These functions display information about the variable, which can be helpful during development. However, if they contain any sensitive information, the presence of these functions in production code can expose that. Therefore, it is advised to avoid using it in production.
Documentation comments are helpful in understanding what that part of the code is responsible for. It is always a good idea to add documentation to your code to improve the code readability and maintainability. In addition to that, it becomes helpful when you revisit the code after a long time. Here, the function/class method is missing the doc comment and it is recommended to add it for the reasons discussed above.
The class has been incorrectly instantiated, which would cause a runtime error.
You have marked this block as
XXX. Please make sure this is addressed, or remove this comment as this could be misleading.
eval()function found PHP-A1000
eval() function allows execution of an arbitrary PHP code. Executing code dynamically is security-sensitive and should be avoided.
The assignment is not valid and would raise an error during the runtime.
Syntax error found in this file. Please refer to the error message for more information.
Documentation comments are helpful in understanding what that part of the code is responsible for. It is always a good idea to add documentation to your code to improve the code readability and maintainability. In addition to that, it becomes helpful when you revisit the code after a long time. Here, the class is missing the doc comment and it is recommended to add it for the reasons discussed above.
Cipher algorithm used to encrypt data is not strong. Using weak cipher algorithm such as RC2, RC4, DES, MD5, etc. for encrypting sensitive data can be vulnerable to several attacks.
Logging user-provided values directly can put application vulnerable to multiple attack vectors. Superglobal variables contains values specified by the user, which are considered as tainted and untrusted. Therefore, it is discouraged to pass these variables directly to the logger.
require) statements are used to include and copy all the text/code/markup from an external file into the file that uses the include statement. This issue flags the use of this statement when a user-provided value is directly used in it.
Using user-provided values to construct the
require statement can allow an attacker to control which files are included, giving them the ability to execute arbitrary code.
Using user-provided data while executing an SQL query can lead to SQL injection attacks. An SQL injection attack consists of the insertion or "injection" of a malformed SQL query via the input data given to an application. It is a prevalent attack vector and causes significant damage if the incoming data is not properly sanitized.
Cookies set without the
httponly flag can be read by a client-side script, leading to cookie theft from Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) attacks.
sha1() function is not recommended to generate secure passwords. Due to its fast nature to compute passwords too quickly, these functions can become really easy to crack a password using brute force attack.
It is recommended to use PHP's password hashing function
password_hash() to create a secure password hash.
Cookies set without the
secure flag can cause the user agent to send those cookies in plaintext over an HTTP session with the same server. This can be observed by an unauthorized person, leading to a man-in-the-middle attack.
Excessive permissions are granted when creating a directory. This issue is raised when permission greater than
0755 is given, or permissions argument is not specified when creating a directory using
mkdir() function. By default,
mkdir() function gives universal access(
0777) to created folders.
The permission number can be a 3 or 4-digit numeric, where the first digit states permissions for the file owner, the second digit is for the file group, and the last digit states the permission all other users. Each write, read, and execute permissions have the following number value:
r(read) = 4
w(write) = 2
x(execute) = 1
So as an example, to give full permission to file owner and read permission to the group and all other users, use
0744 while creating a directory.
Generating session ID manually can allow an attacker to hijack another user's session. The application can become vulnerable if the session ID is not generated using a strong secure pseudo-random generator or, the session ID length is too short.
Therefore, it is discouraged to generate session IDs manually. Instead, always use language-specific function like
session_regenerate_id() to generate new session IDs.
system functions to execute command can make the application vulnerable to arbitrary commands execution, if the user-supplied data is escaped or sanitized properly before passing them.
Though functions like
escapeshellcmd exists which can be used to escape the command and shell argument. But the lack of cross-operating system compatibility of these functions relying on it is discouraged.
XML specification allows the use of entities that can be internal or external(file system or network, etc.) which could lead to vulnerabilities such as SSRF or confidential file disclosures. Therefore, enabling external entity substitution via
LIBXML_NOENT option can make an application vulnerable to XML External Entity (XXE) attacks.
As per PSR-1, class methods must be declared in the
It is recommended that you follow PSR standards while developing PHP applications so the code is consistent and can be easily maintained.